Chemical Analysis of Coffee Berry Volatiles That Elicit an Antennal Response From the Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei
AbstractOne of the major obstacles to coffee production worldwide is the damage caused by the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari; Coleoptera: Curculionidae). When searching for host fruits, females are attracted to the volatiles the fruits release. In this study, the volatiles released by the ripe and dry fruits of Coffea arabica and C. canephora were analyzed by gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The areas of the response peaks were analyzed using canonical discriminant analysis. The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated the presence of 4 distinct groups of volatiles released from ripe and dry C. arabica and C. canephora. A few of the most influential compounds in the canonical discriminate analysis also elicited antennal activity (GC-EAD) in the flying female coffee berry borers, specifically 2-heptanone, 2-heptanol, 3-ethyl-4-methylpentanol, phenyl ethyl alcohol, methyl alicylate, and α-copaene. These compounds will be tested in the field to explore the development of a new chemical that is attractive to the borers and can be used in the management of the coffee berry borer H. hampei.
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