Estimation of Various Physicochemical Properties of Walnut Oil from Different Areas of Northern Kpk, Pakistan

  • Yasir Uddin Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
  • Nasir Mehmood Khan Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
  • Farman Ali Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
  • Shujaat Ahmad Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
  • Zia Ullah Khan Abdul Wali Khan University
  • Muhammad Asif Nawaz Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
  • Jian Wang Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Keywords: Juglans regia L, walnut oil, physicochemical parameters, GS/MS analysis

Abstract

Abstract. In this study, the physicochemical properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) oils collected from different sites in Khyber PakhtoonKhwa (KPK), Pakistan were investigated. The obtained walnut oils showed variation in viscosity, surface tension, density, acid, saponification, and iodine values. The oil obtained from the Madyan (Sample E) showed the lowest density (0.981 g/cm3), surface tension (34.76×10-3 N/m), viscosity (15.0595 cp) saponification values 84.15 (mg KOH/g of oil) and acid value 3.5 (mg KOH per gram oil) amongst all. The physicochemical properties of all the oils were also compared to olive oil (standard) where sample E showed similarities in such properties compared to olive oil. Moreover, higher concentrations of oleic acid (41 %) and linoleic acid (9 %) were detected in the walnut oil of sample E in GC/MS analysis. The similarities of walnut oil obtained from Madyan to that of standard (olive oil) thus affirm it as best quality oil and suitable for food processing purposes.   

 

Resumen. En este estudio se investigaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas del aceite de nuez (Juglans regia L.) recolectado de diferentes sitios en Khyber PakhtoonKhwa (KPK), Pakistán. Los aceites de nuez obtenidos mostraron variación en los valores de viscosidad, tensión superficial, densidad, acidez, saponificación e índice de yodo. El aceite obtenido del Madyan (Muestra E) mostró la menor densidad (0.981 g/cm3), tensión superficial (34.76 × 10-3 N/m), viscosidad (15.0595 cp), valores de saponificación 84.15 (mg KOH/g de aceite) y valor ácido 3.5 (mg KOH por gramo de aceite) entre otros. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas de todos los aceites también se compararon con el aceite de oliva (estándar); la muestra E mostró similitudes en las diferentes propiedades en comparación con el aceite de oliva. Además, se determinaron concentraciones más elevadas de ácido oleico (41 %) y ácido linoleico (9 %) en el aceite de nuez de la muestra E mediante el análisis GC/MS. Las similitudes del aceite de nuez obtenido de Madyan con el estándar (aceite de oliva) lo afirman como aceite de mejor calidad y adecuado para el procesamiento de alimentos.

Author Biographies

Yasir Uddin, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

Department of Chemistry.

Nasir Mehmood Khan, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

Department of Agriculture.

Farman Ali, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

Department of Chemistry.

Shujaat Ahmad, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

Department of Pharmacy.

Zia Ullah Khan, Abdul Wali Khan University

Department of Agriculture.

Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

Department of Biotechnology.

Jian Wang, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University

Department of Pharmacy.

College of Chinese Medicine, Chongqing Medical University.

References

McGranahan, G.; Leslie, C. Walnuts (Juglans): Genetic Resources of Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops 290, 1991, 907-974.

Cosmulescu, S. N.; Baciu, A.; Achim, G.; Mihai, B.; Trandafir, I. Not. Bot. Horti Agrobot. Cluj-Napoca. 2009, 37, 156-160.

Kanu, A. M.; Kalu, J. E.; Okorie, A. C. Int. J. Sci. Tech. Res. 2015, 4, 215-220

Rahimi, P.; Kabiri, N.; Asgary, S.; Setorki, M. African J. phar. pharm. 2011, 5, 2655-2661.

Hiroshi, S.; Tanaka, J.; Kikuchi, M.; Fukuda, T.; Ito, H.; Hatano, T.; Yoshida, T. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 4444-4449.

Rath, B.P.; Pradhan, D. Int. J. Toxicol. Pharmacol. Res. 2009, 1, 24-26.

Fukuda, T.; Ito, H.; Yoshida, T. Biofactors. 2004, 2, 251-253.

Mokhtari, M.; Shariati, M.; Sadeghi, N. Med. Sci. J. Islam. Azad. Uni. 2008, 18, 85-90.

Kamei, H.; Koide, T.; Kojima, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hasegawa, M. Cancer Biother. Radiopharm. 1998, 13, 185–8.

Nael.; A. T.; Mohammed, A.A. Afri. J. Microbio. Res. 2011, 5, 5796-5805.

FAO. Production Yearbook. FAO, Rome, Italy, 2018.

Agar, I.T.; Kaska, N.; Kafkas, S. Acta Hortic. 1995, 4194, 411-417.

Balci, B. Bazı, Ceviz (Juglans regia L.) Çe itlerinde Farklı Ekolojilerin Verim Ve Kalite Ögelerine Etkileri Üzerine Araştırmalar. Ege Üniversitesi." Fen Bilimleri Ens. Doktora Tezi (Basılmamış), Izmir, 2002, 285s.

Koyuncu, M. A.; Ekinci, K.; Savran, E. Biosys. Eng. 2004, 87, 305-311.

Ali, M.; Ullah, A.; Ullah, H.; Khan, F.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Ali, L.; Ahmad, S. Pak. J. Nut. 2010, 9, 240-244.

Fakhri, N.A.; Qadir, K. J. Envir. Sci. Eng. 2011, 5, 1-12.

Gunstone, F. Vegetable oils in food technology: Composition, properties and uses. John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Ed, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, West Sussex, UK, 2011, 25-133.

Gaikwad, R.D.; Swamy, P. Acta Chim. Slovenica. 2008, 55.

Kim, J.; Kim, D.N.; Lee, S.H.; Yoo, S.H.; Lee, S. Food Chem. 2010, 118, 398-402.

Neagu, A.A.; Niţa, I.; Botez, E.; Geaca, S. Ovidius Uni. Annals Chem. 2013, 24, 121-126.

Sahasrabudhe, S.N.; Rodriguez-Martinez, V.; O’Meara, M.; Farkas, E. Int. J. Food Pro. 2017, 20, 1965-1981.

Singh, R.P.; Heldman, D.R. Mass transfer. In: Introduction to Food Engineering, Academic Press. New York, 2001.

Rao, M.A. Viscosity of food: Measurement and application. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry: Applications, Theory and Instrumentation. John Wiley & Sons, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, West Sussex, UK 2006, 1-16.

Kirschenbauer, H.G. Fats and oils: An outline of their chemistry and technology. P. Imprenta (2nd Ed), Reinhold. New York, USA, 1960, 154.

Hussain, R.; Hussain, A.; Khan, A.; Sattar, S.; Zeb, M.; Hussain, A.; Nafees, M. Pak. J. Anal. Envi. Chem. 2015, 16, 7-19.

Bennion, M. Introductory Foods. Prentice-Hall Incorporation (10th Ed), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, 1995, 165-166.

Mbatchou, V.C.; Kosoono, I. Phytopharmacol. 2012, 2, 81-91.

Hasnat, A. Phys. Sust. Crop Prod. 2018, 69.

Olaleye, O. O.; Eke, M. O.; Aondo, T. O. Asian Food Sci. J. 2018, 1-12.

Bandyopadhyay, K.; Chakraborty, C.; Chakraborty, S.; Ganguly, S. Pharma. Innov. J. 2017, 6, 106.

Dileesh, S.; Adithya, M.; Sankar, A.; Peter, C. V. Res. Schol. 2013, 2249-6696.

Onyeike, E.N.; Oguike, J.U. Biokemistri. 2003, 15, 34-43.

Zahir, E.; Saeed, R.; Hameed, M.A.; Yousuf, A. Arabian J. Chem. 2017, 10, S3870-S3876.

Abad, M.J.; Bedoya, L.M.; Apaza, L.; Bermejo, P. Molecules. 2012, 17, 2542-2566.

FSO (Federation, Oil Seeds) Section 1: Quality Standards, Technical Information & Typical Analysis, 2017, 1-67.

Published
09-23-2021