GC-MS Analysis of Volatile Organic Constituents of Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants from the Western Ghats of India: Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce., Heliotropium indicum L. and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.


  • Rajesh K. Joshi ICMR-National Institute of Traditional Medicine




Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce., Heliotropium indicum L, Triumfettarhomboidea Jacq., terpin-4-ol, eugenol, GC/MS


The present study explored essential oil constituents of the medicinal plants used in traditional medicine and growing wild in the Western Ghats region of India, which is one of the 34 global biodiversity hotspots. The hydro distilled essential oils of Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) Druce. (Asteraceae), Heliotropium indicum L. (Boraginaceae) and Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. (Tiliaceae) were analyzed using gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-six, twenty-seven, and fifty constituents were identified from the essential oils of B. lanceolaria, H. indicum, and T. rhomboidea, respectively comprising 97.3% (B. lanceolaria), 98.2% (H. indicum) and 97.6% (T. rhomboidea) of the total oil constituents. The major compounds of B. lanceolaria, H. indicum, and T. rhomboidea were identified as β-pinene (82.3%), methyl salicylate (54.3%), and β-caryophyllene (28.9%), respectively. The essential of B. lanceolaria was found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (90.4%), while H. indicum and T. rhomboidea oils were rich in phenyl derivative (72.8%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.5%) type constituents, respectively. The common compounds viz., terpin-4-ol and eugenol were identified in the essential oils of B. lanceolaria, H. indicum, and T. rhomboidea.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Rajesh K. Joshi, ICMR-National Institute of Traditional Medicine

ICMR-National Institute of Traditional Medicine, Department of Phytochemistry, Belagavi, Karnataka-590 010, India


Wachtel-Galor, S.; Benzie, I.F.F., in: Herbal Medicine, Benzie, I.F.F., Wachtel-Galor, S., Eds., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL, 2011.

Chamorro, E.R.; Zambon, S.N.; Morales, W.G.; Sequeira, A.F.; Velasco, G.A., in: Study of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils by Gas Chromatography, Gas Chromatography in Plant Science, Wine Technology, Toxicology and Some Specific Applications, Salih, B., Ed. In Tech, 2012.

Joshi, R.K., in: A Perspective on the Phytopharmaceuticals Responsible for the Therapeutic Applications, eds. Keservani, R.K., Sharma, A. K., Keservani, R. K., IGI Global, Pennsylvania, USA, 2017.

Myers, N.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Mittermeier, C.G.; Gustavo, A.B.; Fonseca, D.A.; Kent, J., Nature 2000, 403, 853-858.

Uphof, J.C.T., in: Dictionary of Economic Plants, Engelmann, H. R., Cramer, J., Eds., New York, USA, 1959.

Rai, P. K.; Lalramnghinglova, H., Ethnobot. Leaflets 2010, 6, 2010.

Dutta, S. C.; Saha, B. N.; Pathak, M. G.; Mathur, R. K., Indian Perfum. 1989, 33, 38-39.

Dung, N. X.; Loi, D. T.; Hung, D. T.; Leclercq, P. A., J. Essent. Oil Res. 1991, 3, 285-286.

Khare, C. P., in: Indian Medicinal Plants, An Illustrated Dictionary, Springer Science, Springer-Verlag, 2007.

Mattocks, A. R.; Schoental, R.; Crowley, H. C.; Culvenor, C. C. J., J. Chem. Soc. 1961,1064, 5400-5403.

Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N., ISRN Pharmacol. 2011, 1-8.

Reddy, J. S.; Rao, P. R.; Reddy, M. S., J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002, 79, 249-251.

Adelaja, A. A.; Ayoola, M. D.; Otulana, J. O., Akinola, O. B.; Olayiwola, A.; Ejiwunmi A. B.; Malays. J. Med. Sci. 2008, 15, 22-30.

Srinivas, K.; Rao, M. E. B.; Rao, S.S., Indian J. Pharmacol. 2000, 32, 37-38.

Mattocks, A. R., J. Chem. Soc. 1967, 329-331.

Souza, J. S. N.; Machado, L. L.; Pessoa, O. D. L.; Braz-Filho, R.; Overk, C.R.; Yao, P.; Cordell, G. A.; Lemos, T. L. G., J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 2005, 16, 1410-1414.

Yeo, D.; Attioua, B.; Lehalle, C.; Kossi, M.; Nguessan, J. D.; Djaman, A. J.; Lobstein, A.; Frossard, N., J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2011, 01, 102-106.

Dutta, S. K., Sanyal, U.; Chakraborty, S. K., Indian J. Cancer Chemother. 1987, 9, 73-77.

Machan, T.; Korth, J.; Liawruangrath, B.; Liawruangrath, S.; Pyne, S. G., Flavour Fragr. J. 2006, 21, 265-267.

Ogunbinu, A. O.; Flamini, G.; Cioni, P. L.; Adebayo, M. A.; Ogunwande, I.A., Nat. Prod. Commun. 2009, 4, 573-578.

Mevy, J. P., Bessiere, J. M.; Rabier, J.; Dherbomez, M.; Ruzzier, M., Millogo, J.; Viano, J., Flavour Fragr. J. 2006, 21, 80-83.

Sivakumar, P.; Sambath, K. R., Sivakumar, T., Nethaji, R.; Vijayabaskaran, M.; Perumal, P.; Bukkawer, A. R.; Jayakar, B.; Parvathi, K.; Sarasu, C., Res. J. Med. Sci. 2008, 2, 203-208.

Tchoukoua, A.; Sandjo, L. P.; Keumedjio, F.; Ngadjui, B. T., Kirsch, G., Chem. Nat. Compd. 2013, 49, 811-814.

Lissy, K. P.; Simon, T. K.; Lathab, M. S., Anc. Sci. Life 2006, 25, 10-15.

Joshi, R. K., Nat. Prod. Commun. 2018, 13, 1355-1356.

Joshi, R. K., Chem. Nat. Compd. 2018, 54, 584-585.

Sharma, S.; Rasal, V. P.; Joshi, R. K.; Patil, P. A., Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2018, 80, 383-390.

Joshi, R. K.; Pai, S. R., Nat. Prod. Res. 2016, 30, 2368-2371.

Joshi, R. K., Nat. Prod. Res. 2016, 30, 979-981.

Joshi, R. K., Chem. Nat. Compd. 2018, 54, 377-379.

Joshi, R. K., J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2016, 54, 295-298.

Yang, Z.; Wu, N.; Zu, Y.; Fu, Y., Molecules 2011, 16, 1044-1054.

Liapi, C.; Anifandis, G.; Chinou, I.; Kourounakis, A. P.; Theodosopoulos, S.; Galanopoulou, P., Planta Med. 2007, 73, 1247-1254.

Liao, S.; Shang, S.; Shen, M.; Rao, X.; Si, H.; Song, J.; Song, Z., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2016, 26, 1512-1515.

Astani, A.; Schnitzler, P., Iran J. Microbiol. 2014, 6, 149-155.

Martin, D.; Valdez, J.; Boren, J.; Mayersohn, M., J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2004, 44, 1151-1157.

Andrade-Silva, M.; Correa, L. B.; Candea, A. L.; Cavalher-Machado, S. C.; Barbosa, H. S.; Rosas, E. C., Henriques, M. G., Inflamm. Res. 2016, 65, 869-879.

Fidyt, K.; Fiedorowicz, A.; Strz?da?a, L.; Szumny, A., Cancer Med. 2016, 5, 3007-3017.

Ghelardini, C.; Galeotti, N.; Di Cesare, M. L.; Mazzanti, G.; Bartolini, A., Farmaco. 2001, 56, 387-389.

Assis, L. C.; Straliotto, M. R.; Engel, D.; Hort, M. A.; Dutra, R. C.; de Bem, A. F., Neuroscience 2014, 279, 220-231.

Klauke, A. L.; Racz, I.; Pradier, B.; Markert, A.; Zimmer, A. M., Gertsch, J.; Zimmer, A., Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol 2014, 24, 608-620.

Kelany, M. E.; Abdallah, M. A., Can. J. Physiol. Pharm. 2016, 94, 739-744.

Joshi, R. K., Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 2013, 36, 349-352.

Joshi, R. K., Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 2014, 37, 331-333.

Franz, C.; Novak, J., in: Sources of essential oils in: Handbook of Essential Oils Science, Technology, and Applications, Baser, K. H. C., Buchbauer, G., Eds. CRC Press, New York, NY, USA, 2010.





Regular Articles

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.