Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs <p>The <em><strong>Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society</strong></em> (<strong><em>J. Mex. </em><em>Chem. Soc.</em></strong>) is devoted to the advancement of the understanding of chemistry by means of publication of research papers and critical reviews. <strong><em>J. Mex. Chem. Soc.</em></strong> is a peer reviewed quarterly publication.</p><p><span>The Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society is currently indexed in:</span></p><ul><li><strong>Comprehensive secondary sources:</strong> Scopus, WoS.</li><li><strong>Specialized secondary sources:</strong> NCBI, medsci, Sci-Finder.</li><li><strong>Full-text repositories:</strong> SciELO, Redalyc.</li><li><strong>Tertiary sources:</strong> JCR, SJR, Science citation index expanded, Sistema de Clasificación de Revistas Mexicanas de Ciencia y Tecnología- CONACYT.</li><li><strong>Complementary sources:</strong> Latindex.</li><li><strong>Qualis/Capes: </strong>B3/2017</li></ul> Sociedad Química de México, A.C. en-US Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society 1870-249X <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ul><ul><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ul><div> </div><center><img src="/public/site/images/admin/CC_BY-NC_4.0_150px_2.jpg" alt="" width="125" height="43" /></center> Synthesis of novel pyridine-connected piperidine and 2H-thiopyran derivatives and their larvicidal, nematicidal, and antimicrobial activities http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/472 <p>A series of novelpyridine-connected piperidine derivatives (<strong>2a-g)</strong> and pyridine-connected 2<em>H</em>-thiopyran derivatives (<strong>4a-g) </strong>were synthesized and screened for larvicidal, nematicidal, and antimicrobial activities. Compound <strong>4e </strong>exhibited larvicidal activity against second instar larvae with an LD<sub>50</sub> value of 0.8μg/mL. In addition, <strong>4e </strong>exhibited high nematicidal activity, with an LD<sub>50</sub> value of 3.2μg/mL.Compounds <strong>2e </strong>(MIC: 4 μg/mL) and<strong> 2d </strong>(MIC: 4 μg/mL) exhibited high antibacterial activity against <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>and <em>Escherichia coli</em>, respectively. Compounds <strong>4b </strong>(MIC: 0.25 μg/mL) and <strong>4f </strong>(MIC: 2 μg/mL) showed high antifungal activity against <em>Candida albicans </em>and <em>Microsporum audouinii, </em>respectively. Therefore, it can be suggested that compounds <strong>2e, 2d, 4e, 4b, </strong>and <strong>4f </strong>may be useful as lead molecules for the development of new classes ofdrugs with larvicidal,nematicidal,and antimicrobial activities.</p> Idhayadhulla Akbar Anis Ahamed Ibrahim A. Arif Radhakrishnan Surendra Kumar Keerthana Selva raj Aseer Manilal Copyright (c) 2019 Idhayadhulla Akbar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.472 A facile synthesis of glycerol carbonate by transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate: Ceria based catalysts http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/859 <p><strong>Abstract. </strong>Solid base catalysts such as Ceria-Zirconia-Magnesia with different mole ratio of magnesium were prepared by impregnation method and characterized by CO<sub>2</sub>-TPD, PXRD, FT-IR and ICP-OES analysis. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was tested in the liquid phase transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate to synthesise glycerol carbonate. Optimization of reaction condition was carried out by varying the molar ratio of the reactants, temperature and time. The highest yield (97 %) of glycerol carbonate was obtained at a reactant molar ratio of 1:3 at 120 °C in 6 h. Study of reusability and reactivation of solid base catalyst was also taken up. A suitable base catalysed mechanism for the formation of glycerol carbonate is proposed.</p><p><strong>Resumen. </strong>Se prepararon catalizadores de base sólida como Ceria-Zirconia-Magnesia con diferentes proporciones molares de magnesio mediante el método de impregnación y se caracterizaron por análisis de CO<sub>2</sub>-TPD, PXRD, FT-IR e ICP-OES. La actividad catalítica de los catalizadores se probó en la transesterificación en fase líquida de glicerol con carbonato de dimetilo para sintetizar carbonato de glicerol. La optimización de las condiciones de reacción se llevó a cabo variando la relación molar de los reactivos, la temperatura y el tiempo. El mayor rendimiento (97 %) de carbonato de glicerol se obtuvo a una relación molar reactiva de 1:3 a 120 °C en 6 h. También se realizó un estudio de la reutilización y reactivación del catalizador de base sólida. Se propone un mecanismo catalítico básico adecuado para la formación de carbonato de glicerol.</p> Venkatesh Venkatesh Mohamed Shamshuddin Sathgatta Zaheeruddin Pratap Srinivasa Raghavendra Copyright (c) 2019 Venkatesh Venkatesh, Mohamed Shamshuddin Sathgatta Zaheeruddin, Pratap Srinivasa Raghavendra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.859 Refractometric study on binary, ternary, and quaternary solutions made by water, methanol, ethanol, glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, and sodium chloride at T = 293.15 K and atmospheric pressure http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/679 <p>The glycerol, D-glucose monohydrate (DGMH), sucrose, and sodium chloride are used in food industries and the measurement of properties for these components and their aqueous solutions can be important. In this research work, the refractive indices for binary solutions of (methanol + glycerol), (ethanol + glycerol), ternary solutions of (water<strong> + </strong>glycerol + DGMH), (water + glycerol + sucrose), (water + sucrose + DGMH), (water + sucrose + ethanol), (water + ethanol + DGMH), (water + NaCl + DGMH), (water + methanol + NaCl), (water + ethanol + NaCl), (water + NaCl + glycerol), (water + sucrose + NaCl), and quaternary solutions of (water + ethanol + sucrose + DGMH), (water + ethanol + sucrose + glycerol), (water + NaCl + sucrose + glycerol) were measured in wide range of mole fractions at T = 293.15 K and atmospheric pressure. For binary solutions of this study, the changes of refractive index on mixing, ∆<em>n</em><sub>D</sub>, were calculated in each mole fraction at T = 293.15 K. Also, the refractive index of binary solutions was fitted by a semi-empirical equation. The constant of this equation, <em>K</em><sub>r</sub>, was represented by Koohyar et al. in 2011. This constant can be used to investigate power of interactions between solute and solvent molecules. For ternary and quaternary solutions of this study, a semi-empirical equation was used to determine refractive indices at given temperature. The comparison between calculated and experimental refractive indices shows that there is a good agreement between them especially in lower molal concentrations. </p> Fardad Koohyar Javad Nasiri Farhoush Kiani Copyright (c) 2019 Fardad Koohyar, Javad Nasiri, Farhoush Kiani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.679 GC/MS analysis and bioactive properties of extracts obtained from Clusia minor L. leaves http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/544 <p><em>Clusia minor</em> L. is traditionally used to treat many disorders that including pain and inflammation such as sores and warts. Four extracts from the leaves of plant were prepared: hexane (CMH-A), ethyl acetate (CMH-B), methanol (CMH-C) and ethanol (CMH-E) and the pharmacological (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties) and toxicity effects were examined. Previously, the main constituents from CMH-A extract was revealed. Here, we present the GC/MS analysis of CMH-B and CMH-C. Thirty three compounds were identified in the CMH-B extract and twenty seven compounds in the CMH-C. The presence of D-α-tocopherol and lupeol was relevant in both extracts. The only sterols identified were sitosterol and stigmasterol. All of them showed effective radical scavenger properties in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, being CMH-E extract the most promissory (IC<sub>50 </sub>= 10.25 µg/mL). CMH-A, C and E extracts, administered topically (0.5–4 mg per ear), significant reduced ear edema induced by croton oil at 4 mg per ear, meanwhile CMH-B that was be able to significant reduce the inflammation at the dose of 2 mg per ear. We evaluated also the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against kidney cells (BHK), colon cancer (CT26), endothelial cancer cells (EA.hy926) and breast cancer (4T1). CMH-B extract showed the most cytotoxicity effect, with IC<sub>50</sub> values in the range of 32.01-203.5 µg/mL. In addition, no oral acute toxicity after mice exposure to <em>Clusia</em> <em>minor</em> L. extracts was observed. The results suggest <em>Clusia minor</em> L. may be a good potential source of new bioactive agents for developing medicinal agents.</p> Raisa Mangas Marín Rodny Montes de Oca Porto María Elizabeth Herrera Paredes Adonis Bello Alarcón Ivones Hernández Balmaseda Roberto Menéndez Soto del Valle Miriam Teresa Paz Lopes Idania Rodeiro Guerra Copyright (c) 2019 Raisa Mangas Marín https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.544 Full validation of curcumin analytical method by LC-MS/MS points out that the degree of hemolysis in plasma affects the quantitation: application in dog plasma study http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/662 <p><strong>Abstract. </strong>Curcumin has gained great attention in the last decades due to its fascinating properties for humans, such as anti-inflammatory or as cytotoxic against cancer. These effects are also claimed for pets such as cats and dogs, where curcumin administration is a daily practice routine. However, curcumin presents poor oral bioavailability, driving scientists to look for new delivery systems. In the last decades, several analytical methods for the quantification of curcumin in plasma have been published. To our knowledge there are no published reports on the effect of the level of hemolysis in the determination of this compound. In the present paper, a highly specific, sensitive and selective method is presented using Molecular Reaction Monitoring (SRM) using positive ionization (ESI+) mode. Curcumin and clopidogrel bisulfate – used as internal standard (IS) – were separated on an Acquity UPLC BECH Shield RP 18 column (1.7µm, 2.1 X 100mm) with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and water in proportion of 60:40 (v/v). The analyte transitions were 369.3→177.06 <em>m/z</em> for curcumin and 322→212.05 <em>m/z</em> for IS. The method was fully validated and showed good linearity (R<sup>2</sup> ≥ 0.999) over the range of 3-160 ng/mL. The Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) were less than 6% for intra-and inter-day analysis and recovery spanned 85-95%. We proved that the degree of hemolysis impaired curcumin quantitation. This method was applied to test curcumin bioavailability in both a mucoadhesive nanocapsule formulation and traditional capsules in dogs that attended routine veterinary consultation.</p><p><strong>Resumen. </strong>La curcumina ha ganado gran atención en las últimas décadas debido a sus propiedades terapéuticas para los humanos, como antiinflamatorio o citotóxico contra el cáncer. Estos efectos también se observan en pequeñas especies como gatos y perros, donde la administración de curcumina se ha vuelto una alternativa. Sin embargo, la curcumina presenta una baja biodisponibilidad oral, lo que impulsa a los científicos a buscar nuevos sistemas de administración. En las últimas décadas, se han publicado varios métodos analíticos para la cuantificación de curcumina en plasma. Actualmente, no hay informes publicados sobre el efecto del grado de hemólisis en la determinación de este compuesto. En este trabajo se desarrolló un método específico, sensible y selectivo utilizando el Monitoreo de reacción seleccionado (SRM) en modo de ionización positiva (ESI +). La curcumina y el bisulfato de clopidogrel, utilizado como patrón interno (IS), se separaron en una columna Acquity UPLC BECH Shield RP 18 (1,7 μm, 2,1 X 100 mm) con ácido fórmico al 0,1% en acetonitrilo y agua a una proporción de 60:40 (v/v). Las transiciones de los analitos fueron 369.3 → 177.06 <em>m/z</em> para curcumina y 322 → 212.05 <em>m/z</em> para IS. El método fue validado y demostró ser lineal (r<sup>2</sup> ≥ 0.999) en el rango de 3-160 ng/mL. La desviación relativa estándar (RSD) fue inferior al 6% para el análisis intra e interdía y el porcentaje de recuperación fue 85-95%. Se descubrió que el grado de hemólisis afecta la cuantificación de curcumina. El método desarrollado se aplicó para evaluar la biodisponibilidad de curcumina tanto en una formulación de nanocápsulas mucoadhesivas como en cápsulas tradicionales en perros que asistieron a consultas veterinarias de rutina.</p> Mariana Dolores Alma Villaseñor Alma Revilla Vázquez Helgi Jung Victor Hugo Santiago Rios Raquel López-Arellano Copyright (c) 2019 Mariana Dolores, Alma Villaseñor, Alma Revilla Vázquez, Helgi Jung, Victor Hugo Santiago Rios, Raquel López-Arellano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.662 Recyclable Nanomagnetic Fe3O4@APTES catalyst role on the Hydrolysis of Polycarbonate Wastes http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/651 <p>In this research, the effect of <a href="https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=1&amp;cad=rja&amp;uact=8&amp;ved=0ahUKEwi45bGG76PbAhUSGewKHQT9AkMQFggmMAA&amp;url=https%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2F(3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane&amp;usg=AOvVaw0weCMawBNqxK2xctVnuCg2">(3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane</a> (APTES) modified Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@APTES) core-shell nanomaterials as the recyclable heterocatalyst on the recovery of bisphenol-A (BPA) from hydrolysis of polycarbonate (PC) wastes were investigated. In the evaluated reactions, water and diethylene glycol (DEG) were used as the green solvent composition and the water as well as magnetic heterocatalyst content were optimized. By examining the results of the above-mentioned reactions, it was observed that by using 25 pbw of water and 2 pbw of magnetic heterocatalyst (both based on total waste and solvent weights), BPA achieved in 100% yield. The Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>@APTES nanomaterials as the heterocatalyst can be recovered and reused up to five intervals with our significant activity losses. The resulting BPA and nanomaterials has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and spectroscopic methods (<sup>1</sup>H NMR, <sup>13</sup>C NMR, FT-IR).</p> Mir mohammad Alavi Nikje Samira Emami Copyright (c) 2019 Mir mohammad Alavi Nikje, Samira Emami https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.651 Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory acyl glucosyl flavones from the leaves of Bursera copallifera http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/624 <em><span lang="EN-US">Bursera copallifera</span></em><span lang="EN-US">(DC) Bullock</span><span lang="EN-US"> (Burseraceae) </span><span lang="EN-US">is a plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation (bronchitis, cough). The dichloromethane-methanol extract (DML) of <em>B. copallifera</em> leaves was found to possess important antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. In order to further correlate these activities with the phytochemical components, the bioactivity-guided fractionation of the DML extract allowed the isolation of an active fraction which was constituted of five compounds characterized as </span><span lang="EN-GB">as luteolin-3'</span><span lang="EN-GB">-<em>O</em>-(3''</span><span lang="EN-GB">-<em>O</em>-<em>E</em>-<em>p</em>-coumaroyl)-α-</span><span lang="EN-GB">L</span><span lang="EN-GB">-rhamnopyranoside (<strong>1</strong>), luteolin-3'</span><span lang="EN-GB">-<em>O</em>-(2''</span><span lang="EN-GB">-<em>O</em>-<em>E</em>-<em>p</em>-coumaroyl)-α-</span><span lang="EN-GB">L</span><span lang="EN-GB">-rhamnopyranoside (<strong>2</strong>)</span><span lang="EN-US">, </span><span lang="EN-US">a</span><span lang="EN-US">-amyrin</span><span lang="EN-GB"> (<strong>3</strong>), 3-epilupeol (<strong>4</strong>) and stigmasterol (<strong>5</strong>). Among the five isolated constituents, the triterpenes <strong>3</strong> and <strong>4</strong>, and the sterol <strong>5</strong> have been already well known by their anti-inflammatory properties. Flavone <strong>2</strong> (Luteolin-3'</span><span lang="EN-GB">-<em>O</em>-(2''</span><span lang="EN-GB">-<em>O</em>-<em>E</em>-<em>p</em>-coumaroyl)-α-</span><span lang="EN-GB">L</span><span lang="EN-GB">-rhamnopyranoside</span><span lang="EN-US">)</span><span lang="EN-GB">was responsible for the </span><span lang="EN-US">antiproliferative</span><span lang="EN-GB"> activity, </span><span lang="EN-US">showing <em>in vitro</em> cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 human cancer cell line with IC<sub>50</sub> value of 13.9 µM. By the other hand flavone <strong>(1)</strong></span><span lang="EN-GB"> exhibited COX-1 inhibition (IC<sub>50</sub> = 93 </span><span lang="EN-GB">m</span><span lang="EN-GB">M). Flavone <strong>1</strong>, together with the triterpenes <strong>3</strong> and <strong>4</strong> were the responsible for inhibiting TPA-induced inflammation by inhibit COX-1 enzyme. Therefore, these results support the traditional use of the infusion made with the leaves of <em>B. copallifera</em> as an anti-inflammatory agent.</span> María Crystal Columba-Palomares María Luisa Villarreal Silvia Marquina Antonio Romero-Estrada Verónica Rodríguez-López Laura Alvarez Copyright (c) 2019 María Crystal Columba-Palomares, María Luisa Villarreal, Silvia Marquina, Antonio Romero-Estrada, Verónica Rodríguez-López, Laura Alvarez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.624 Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic activity of tioconazole coordination compounds with nickel(II), palladium(II) and platinum(II) http://jmcs.org.mx/index.php/jmcs/article/view/563 <p>Coordination compounds of nickel(II), palladium(II) and platinum(II) with tioconazole (tcnz) were synthesized and characterized by infrared, UV-Vis-NIR, elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and X- ray diffraction. Tioconazole presented a monodentate coordination mode, through the nitrogen atom of the imidazolic ring. The Ni<sup>II</sup> compounds stabilized an octahedral geometry. In [Ni(tcnz)<sub>2</sub>(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>]<sup>.</sup>H<sub>2</sub>O the coordinated nitrate presented a bidentate coordination mode, while for the [Ni(tcnz)<sub>2</sub>(OAc)<sub>2</sub>]<sup>.</sup>3H<sub>2</sub>O compound, the acetate behaves as a bridging ligand. When different molar ratios were used on the reaction synthesis, three or six ligands were coordinate to the nickel(II) atom, [Ni(tcnz)<sub>3</sub>Br<sub>2</sub>(H<sub>2</sub>O)], [Ni(tcnz)<sub>6</sub>]Cl<sub>2</sub> and [Ni(tcnz)<sub>6</sub>]Br<sub>2</sub>. The palladium(II) and platinum(II) compounds, [Pd(tcnz)<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>2</sub>], [Pt(tcnz)<sub>2</sub>Cl<sub>2</sub>]<sup>.</sup>2H<sub>2</sub>O and [Pd(tcnz)<sub>2</sub>(OAc)<sub>2</sub>], stabilized a <em>trans</em>-square planar geometry. The compounds [Ni(tcnz)<sub>6</sub>]X<sub>2</sub> give place to 3D supramolecular arrangements through hydrogen bonding (X∙∙∙H, X = Cl and Br) and p∙∙∙p stacking interactions, between the six membered rings of neighbouring molecules. The <em>in vitro </em>cytotoxic activity of the synthesized compounds was studied in four different human carcinoma cell lines: HCT-15 (colon), HeLa (cervix-uterine), MCF-7 (breast) and PC-3 (prostate).</p> Norah Barba Carmela Crisóstomo-Lucas Rubí Navarro-Peñaloza Naytzé Ortiz-Pastrana Francisco Sánchez-Bartéz Isabel Gracia-Mora Copyright (c) 2019 Norah Barba, Carmela Crisóstomo-Lucas, Rubí Navarro-Peñaloza, Naytzé Ortiz-Pastrana, Francisco Sánchez-Bartéz, Isabel Gracia-Mora https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-04-23 2019-04-23 62 4 10.29356/jmcs.v62i4.563