Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Flavonoids from the Flowers of Chuju, a Medical Cultivar of Chrysanthemum Morifolim Ramat

Jun Hu, Wei Ma, Ning Li, Kai-Jin Wang


Chuju, the flower of Chrysanthemum morifolim cv. Chuju, is a traditional medicine-food material used in China. Bioassay-guided chemical investigation on Chuju led the isolation of 16 flavonoids (1-16) characterized as quercetin (1), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (2), eriodictyol (3), pyracanthoside (4), apigenin (5), apigetrin (6), acacetin (7), acacipetalin (8), luteolin (9), diosmetin (10), spinacetin (11), axillarin (12), bonanzin (13), cirsiliol (14), chrysosplenol D (15) and artemetin (16). Among them, compounds (11-16) were first reported from the Chrysanthemum species. Chuju flavonoids displayed strong antioxidant in DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay, and high anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. These findings suggests that Chuju is an ideal source of natural flavonoids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is worthy of further development as health-promoting food or supplement.


Chrysanthemum morifolim cv. Chuju; Chuju flowers; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammatory activity

Full Text:



Pisoschi A. M.; Pop A. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2015, 97, 55-74.

Lei Y.; Wang K.; Deng L, Chen Y, Nice E. C.; Huang C. Med. Res. Rev. 2015, 35, 306-340.

Young I. S. Woodside J.V. J. Clin. Pathol. 2001, 54, 176-186.

Sharla, R. in: Antioxidants, The truth about BHA, BHT, TBHQ and other antioxidants used as food additives. 1sted. Tigmor Books, Northumberland, UK, 2009, 19-30.

Williams G. M.; Iatropoulos M. J.; Whysner J. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1999, 37, 1027-1038.

Pietta P. G. J. Nat. Prod. 2000, 63, 1035-1042.

Editorial Board of Zhong-Hua-Ben-Cao, in: Zhong-Hua-Ben-Cao, Vol. 21, Shanghai Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China, 1999, 806-810.

He D. X.; Ru X. C.; Wen L.; Wen Y. C.; Jiang H. D.; Bruce I. C.; Jin J.; Ma X.; Xia Q. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012, 139, 68-73.

Ukiya M.; Akihisa T.; Yasukawa K.; Kimura Y.; Koike K.; Nikaido T.; Nikaido T.; Takdo M. J. Agr. Food Chem. 2001, 49, 3187-3197.

Sugawara T.; Igarashi K. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 2009, 15, 499-506.

Ukiya M.; Akihisa T.; Tokuda H.; Suzuki H.; Mukainaka T.; Ichiishi E.; Yasukawa K.; Kasahara Y.; Nishino H. Cancer Lett. 2002, 177, 7-12.

Wang M.; Avula B.; Wang Y. H.; Zhao J. P.; Cristina Avonto C.; Parcher J. F.; Raman V.; Zweigenbaum J. A.; Wylie P. L.; Khan I. A. Food Chem. 2014, 152, 391-398.

Wang Y. J.; Guo Q. S.; Yang X. W.; Xu W. B.; Tao H. Y. Chin. J. Chin. Mater.Med. 2008, 33, 2207-2211.

Lin L. Z.; Harnly J. M. (2010). Food Chem. 2010, 120, 319-326.

Clifford M. N.; Wu W. G.; Kirkpatrick J.; Kuhnert N. J. Agr. Food Chem., 2007, 55, 929-939.

Qin J. J.; Zhu J. X.; Zhu Y.; Jin H. Z.; Lv Y. H.; Zhang W. D. Chin. J. Nat. Med., 2010, 8, 257-259.

Kong D. Y.; Luo S. Q.; Li T. H.; Lei X. H. Acta Pharm. Sin. 1988, 23, 593-600.

Pan Y. G.; Li Y. X.; Yuan M. Q. Food Chem. 2015, 186, 119-122.

Zhang Y. J.; Abe T.; Tanaka T.; Yang C. R.; Kouno I. (2002). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2002, 50, 841-843.

Bensouici C.; Kabouche A.; Karioti A.; Oztürk M.; Duru M. E.; Billa A. R.; Kabouche Z. Pharm. Bio. 2015, 7, 1-6.

Zou Z. J.; Ju J. H.; Yang J. S. Chin. Pharm. J. 2006, 41, 102-103.

Park Y.; Moon B.H.; Yang H.; Lee H.; Lee E.; Lim Y. Magn. Reson. Chem. 2007, 45, 1072-1075.

Tang H. Q.; Hu J.; Yang L.; Tan R. X. Planta Med. 2000, 66, 391-393.

Morita N.; Shimizu M.; Arisawa M. Phytochemistry 1973, 12, 421-423.

Zhao Y. W.; Ni F. Y.; Song Y. L.; Wang S. Y.; Huang W. Z.; Wang Z. Z.; Xiao W. Chin. J. Chin. Mater. Med. 2014, 39, 4816-4821.

Blois M. S. Nature 1958, 181, 1199-1200.

Van Acker S. A.; de Groot M. J.; van D. J.; Tromp M. N.; den Kelder G. D.; van der Vijgh W. J. F.; Bast A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 1996, 9, 1305-1312.

Braca A.; Fico G.; Morelli I.; Simone F. D.; Tome F.; Tommasi N. D. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2003, 86, 63-67.

Cioffi G.; D’Auria M.; Braca A.; Mendez J.; Castillo A.; Morelli I.; De Simone F.; De Tommasi N. J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1526-1529.

Moncada S.; Palmer R. M. J.; Higgs E. A. Pharmacol. Rev. 1991, 43, 109-142.

Nathan C. FASEB J. 1992, 6, 3051-3064.

Andrews J.; Djakiew D.; Krygier S.; Andrews P. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 2002, 50, 277-284.

Tsai W. C.; Tang F. T.; Hsu C. C.; Hsu Y. H.; Pang J. H.; Shiue C. C. J. Orthop. Res. 2004, 22, 586-591.

Matsuda H.; Morikawa T.; Ando S. I.; Yoshikawa M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003, 11, 1995-2000.

Panthong A.; Kanjanapothi D.; Tuntiwachwuttkul P.; Pancharoen O.; Reutrakul V. Phytomedicine 1994, 1, 141-144.

Kim H. K.; Cheon B. S.; Kim Y. H.; Kim S. Y.; Kim H. P. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1999, 58, 759-765.

Liao W. C.; Lai Y. C.; Yuan M. C.; Hsu Y. L.; Chan C. F. Food Chem. 2001, 127, 1224-1228.

Wang K. J.; Yang R. Y.; Zhang Y. J. Food Chem. 2007, 101, 365-371. 39. Ma W.; Liu F.; Ding Y. Y.; Zhang Y.; Li N. Fitoterapia 2015, 105, 83-88.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jun Hu, Wei Ma, Ning Li, Kai-Jin Wang

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society (J. Mex. Chem. Soc.) Vol 61, No 4 (2017). Quarterly publication (October-December). Edited and distributed by Sociedad Química de México, A.C. Barranca del Muerto 26, Col. Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico City. Phone: +5255 56626837; +5255 56626823 Contact: Editor-in-Chief: Ignacio González-Martínez. Indexed Journal. Certificate of reserved rights granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor (INDAUTOR): 04-2005-052710530600-102. Certificate of lawful title and content: Under procedure. ISSN-e granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor (INDAUTOR): 2594-0317. ISSN granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor (INDAUTOR): 1870-249X. Postal registration of printed matter deposited by editors or agents granted by SEPOMEX: IM09-0312 Copyright © Sociedad Química de México, A.C. Total or partial reproduction is prohibited without written permission of the right holder. The Figures/schemes quality and the general contents of this publication are full responsibility of the authors. Updated November 26th, 2017 by Adriana Vázquez (editorial assistant, e-mail:, J. Mex. Chem. Soc., Sociedad Química de México, A.C.